Effects of Tramadol and Cypermethrin on the Histology of Sarcophaga ruficornis Larvae and Their Concentrations in Postmortem Rabbit Tissues and Their Post-Feeding Larvae

Document Type : Original Article


Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, South Valley University.


Sarcophaga has forensic and medical importance because its larvae are commonly associated with cadavers. This study aims to determine tramadol and cypermethrin levels in postmortem rabbit tissues and inside the larvae of Sarcophaga ruficornis that invade these corpses and explore the histological effects of tramadol and cypermethrin on Sarcophaga ruficornis larvae. To accomplish these objectives, three groups of rabbits were used. The first group received double LD50 of tramadol hydrochloride; the second group received double LD50 of cypermethrin; and the third group received saline solution and was killed by air injection and used as a control. After the deaths of all rabbits, stomach, liver, kidney, gall bladder, lung, spleen tissues and Sarcophaga ruficornis larvae were taken. Tramadol and cypermethrin concentrations in postmortem tissues and Sarcophaga ruficornis larvae were analyzed using (HPLC). The current study demonstrated that all rabbit tissues treated with tramadol and cypermethrin were positive for these toxins, except tissues of the gall bladder, lung and spleen, which were negative. However, all control rabbit tissues were negative. The toxicological analysis showed that tramadol and cypermethrin were transferred from the administered rabbits to the feeding Sarcophaga ruficornis larvae. Histological observations revealed various pathological changes in larvae, especially deformities in the structures of the cuticular body wall, muscles and fat bodies with damage to the epithelial cells lining the midgut. Therefore, histological examination of insects is used in forensic entomology when drugs are suspected as a cause of death.