Novel Systemic Insecticides, Spirotetramat and Flonicamid: Field Performance against Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) and Potential Safety for Indigenous Bioindicators

Document Type : Original Article


1 Plant Protection Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Al-Sabhia, Alexandria, Egypt.

2 Department of Applied Entomology and Zoology, Faculty of Agriculture (El-Shatby), Alexandria University, Alexandria 21545, Egypt.


One of the most destructive plant pests is the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius). Spray and soil-drenching applications of the novel insecticides, spirotetramat 10% SC and flonicamid 50% WG were evaluated against the adults and nymphs of the whitefly along two seasons of the cotton crop. Sprays of both insecticides had potent protection against adults for the first 6 days after treatment (DAT), but were shifted from 3 to 6 DAT in soil-drenching. All the applications controlled the nymphs along the 12 DAT. The Beneficial Arthropod Index expressed unfavorable balances for these insecticides between the whitefly and its parasitic wasps. Both insecticide sprays had potent reductions on Eretmocerus mundus (Mercet) over 3-12 DAT. Spirotetramat 10% SC affected Encarsia artenopae (Foerster) over 3-6 DAT, contrary to the unsteady effects of flonicamid 50% WG. Flonicamid’s soil-drenching showed unsteady declines on these wasps compared to spirotetramat 10% SC that lasted from 3 to 6 DAT. Based on the International Organization for Biological Control’s guidelines, both insecticides were moderately harmful to the overall mean population of soil micro-arthropods along 12 DAT.